A lot of events in history are important, but some events are more important to me than others. If you want me to add some event to this list, then open a PR here.
Some of these are “first to invent” and others are “first to popularize”. I've linked some keywords to their past/future but most of them are just plain facts.
- Coronavirus declared global health emergency by WHO
- Number of Internet users reaches 4.5 Billion.
- 🇩🇪 Yours Truly took his first international flight. 🛫
- Google claimed to achieve Quantum supremacy. (idk what that means doe.)
- NIXI appointed Neustar Data Infotech to manage .in, they are starting to add Indian-language domains.
- The first ever image of a black hole was captured, using eight different telescopes taking simultaneous pictures, timed with extremely precise atomic clocks.
- Y.3172, an ITU-T Recommendation specifying an architecture for machine learning in future networks including 5G was released. It also mentions methods such as containers and orchestration.
- 🇮🇳 Jio was launched in India by Reliance
- ZeroNet launched. (Combines NameCoin, Bittorrent and TOR somehow)
- IPFS initial release.
- Yours truly finally got proper internet connection. 🕸
- AlphaGo defeated a professional human opponent.
- Caddy was put out by Matthew Holt.
- WebAssembly was announced, it became a W3C recommendation in 2019.
- Kubernetes initial release.
- VLANX was introduced to deal with the scalability(only 4095 VLANS) issue of VLANS for large cloud deployments.
- Raft consensus algorithm was put out in a PhD thesis by Diego Ongaro.
- Let's Encrypt non-profit was founded by ISRG, it was finally launched in 2016. They also created the ACME protocol for this.
- nftables was added to the Kernel.
- Heartbleed a bug in OpenSSL was found.
- 512k day.
- Aaron Swartz left us. 🥀
- Netflix and YouTube account for over 50% of Internet traffic measured by bytes.
- 🇮🇳 IRNSS was launched because GPS is not controlled by the Indian govt.
- etcd was released.
- Docker was released.
- TempleOS was released. Davis started writing it around 2003. He passed away in 2018. RIP Davis 🥀
- English Wikipedia was blacked out for one day to protest the SOPA
- Google Drive was launched.
- Raspberry Pi was introduced to the world.
- Coursera was founded by Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller.
- Edx was launched by MIT and Harvard.
- Prometheus was developed at SoundCloud out of need.
- Sci-Hub launched by Alexandra Asanovna Elbakyan.
- BYJU'S was founded by Byju Raveendran.
- Open Compute Project was started at Facebook to openly share designs of data center products.
- Apache Kafka was made open source.
- CRDT concept was formally defined.
- NVMe, an open logical device interface specification for accessing non-volatile storage media attached via PCI Express bus was launched.
- Instagram was launched.
- Unacademy started as a YouTube channel by Gaurav Munjal.
- Udemy was founded.
- PayTM was founded.
- Sun was acquired by Oracle.
- Apache Zookeper paper published.
- Rust language was born.
- Private Internet Access (PIA) was founded. The founder seems interesting to me.
- systemd was put out. ⚠️ ⚔️
- RISC-V an open standard instruction set architecture (ISA) was put out by David Patterson
- Bitcoin paper was published.
- WhatsApp was born.
- Quora was created by Adam D'Angelo.
- Cloudflare was started. It received media attention in June 2011 for providing security services to the website of LulzSec, a black hat.
- SoundCloud website was launched by Swedish sound designer Alexander Ljung and Swedish electronic musician Eric Wahlforss.
- DNSSEC becomes operational on .org
perf_eventwas introduced to the Linux kernel.
ftracewas added around the same time.
- Go / Golang programming language was born.
- AppArmor was added to Kernel.
- DropBox released to the public.
- First Android smartphone(HTC Dream) was released. Google acquired Android in 2004.
- Library Genesis was started after the downfall of Library.nu.
- Spotify application launched.
- cgroups were added to the Linux Kernel, there was a rewrite of cgroups in 2016, LXC was released around this time aswell.
- iPhone 1 came out.
- Apple opensourced Clang compiler.
- SCTP RFC was published.
- KVM was merged into kernel.
- VirtualBox was made opensource.
- Btrfs was demonstrated and was merged into the Kernel in 2009.
- WikiLeaks launched.
- Twitter was launched.
- John Resig wrote JQuery
- Apple switched to Intel x86 processors from PowerPC based processors.
- Git was made public.
- FUSE was merged into Linux 2.6.14
- YouTube was launched.
- Reddit was launched.
- Atom syndication format was published as an IETF proposed standard.
- Number of Internet users reaches 1 Billion.
- Intel joined to work on UEFI to replace BIOS
- QEMU paper was published.
- ZFS was merged into Solaris.
- Arduino project was started, Arduino joined hands with ARM Holdings in 2017.
- Facebook was launched.
- Library.nu was launched. (Later taken down in 2007)
- .in TLD was registered.
- Markdown was released, Aaron and John gruber worked on it.
- PCI-Express/PCIe was announced, It has a point to point connection to other devices rather than the broadcast manner that PCI operated in.
- Nginx was released.
- pfSense project started.
- LUKS(Linux Unified Key Setup) was launched, it is based on TKS1 paper that was also released along with it.
- dm-crypt merged into Kernel 2.6.4. It resides entirely in kernel space, needs tools like cryptsetup and cryptmount to operate.
- Netlink was added to the Kernel. libnl was also added during this time.
- Ubuntu released by Canonical.
- Piratebay launched
- I2P was launched.
- 🇮🇳 NIXI was founded.
- NFC was approved by ISO.
- Metasploit was created.
- DTrace was created by Bryan Cantrill and friends for Solaris.
- VLAN/802.1Q was introduced to extend Ethernet.
- XEN type-1 hypervisor was released.
- DragonFly BSD was released.
- Linux Security Modules(LSM) was merged into Linux.
- SELinux originally developed by NSA was merged into Linux Kernel.
- Athlon64 the first 64bit processor was released by AMD
- Tor was released.
- Winny was released.
- Having your own Blog becomes hip.
- Arch Linux (my fav distro) released. Fight me.
- PIR (Public Interest Registry) created by ISOC to manage the .org top-level domain.
- Bittorrent developed by Bram Cohen.
- Wikipedia was launched by Jimmy Wales.
- WaybackMachine was launched by InternetArchive calling it the three dimensional index.
- GNUNet was announced.
- Douglas Crockford specified and popularized the JSON
- CreativeCommons was founded.
- ext3 was introduced with journaling to the Linux Kernel.
- Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) spec(published in 1998) was established by NIST. It superseeded DES and is a symmetric-key algorithm. It later became an ISO and IEC standard and was approved by the NSA publicly.
- LSB(Linux Standard Base) was formed to preserve ABI between diffeerent Linux distributions.
- Gnutella was launched.
- LimeWire was launched.
- LLVM project started.
- BIRD Internet routing daemon project was started.
- Netfilter project was added to Linux kernel mainline. iptables's father and grandfather were ipchains and ipfwadm.
- Freenet was launched with a goal to provide freedom of speech through a peer-to-peer network which focuses on protecting anonymity.
- Dot-com bubble burst.
- Y2K problem.
- Folding@Home was launched for performing molecular dynamics simulations of protein dynamics. The exaFLOP barrier was broken in March of 2020 due to [COVID19][#2020].
- USB Flash Drives were being sold for the first time.
- SATA was announced in 2000, in order to provide several advantages over the earlier PATA interface.
- Napster, developed by Shawn Fanning while still a freshman at Northeastern University.
- RSS 0.9 was released.
- Initial version of GNOME was released.
- SETI@Home launches on 17 May and within four weeks its distributed Internet clients provide more computing power than the most powerful supercomputer of its time. It has the investigation of phenomena in interstellar space as its primary purpose. It shuts down in 2020.
- GnuPG/GPG was developed based on OpenPGP, for
keyit supports Elgamal encryption and RSA, for
signaturesit supports DSA. It supports many other algorithms for each step of PGP aswell.
- Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) system was launched by Mitre Corporation.
- SSL renamed to TLS
- OpenBSD created OpenSSH and released it.
- ICANN was founded.
- 🇮🇳 ICICI Bank introduced Internet Banking in India.
- PayPal was founded.
- Nick Szabo "designed" Bit Gold, which is considered the direct precursor to Bitcoin.
- LVM was written.
- VMware was founded.
- ISS was launched.
- 🇮🇳 C-DAC was founded, currently falls under MeitY.
- IPv6 was presented as a draft by IETF.
- XML 1.0 was specified.
- DMCA was introduced.
- IPMI was introduced by Intel.
- CAP Theorem was published by Eric Brewer.
- iSCSI was pioneered by IBM and Cisco.
- OpenSSL project was founded. It contains an open-source implementation of the TLS protocols.
- 🇮🇳 TRAI was founded.
- Netflix was started.
- cURL was released.
- OpenPGP was standardized by IETF when Zimmermann became convinced that an open standard for PGP encryption was critical.
- Yours truly was born. 👶
- Internet Archive was founded.
- Google(then BackRub) was founded.
- KDE was founded.
- UML was standardized.
- Crash Bandicoot, first ever 3D platform game was released with the PS1.
- .png was specified and became a W3C
- 🇮🇳 Internet came to India.
- Calm Computing was first mentioned by Mark Weiser.
- Java was released by Sun
- PHP was released.
- 🇺🇸 GPS became fully functional, it was started in 1973.
- Apache HTTP Server was released.
- WikiWikiWeb (c2) the first ever wiki was launched. Was based and built by the developer of Hypercard.
- Windows95 was released.
- OpenBSD was released by Theo de Raadt after getting removed from the NetBSD project.
- IPsec was standardaized by IETF,It was a joint effort of many parties including ARPA and NSA.
- 3DES was released as DES is no longer considered adequate, 3DES inturn later was considered inadequate in 2016 when OpenSSL stopped including it because it was a "weak cipher".
- SSL 2.0 and HTTPS released by Netscape. Taher Elgamal is considered the father of SSL.
- 🇫🇮 SSH-1 was released as a freeware.
- Linux added ELF support, The Linux ELF format was chosen at 86open as the standard for x86 arch in 1999.
- Yahoo was founded.
- BGP RFC released, it supported CIDR and Supernets, a year later IPv6 BGP was defined.
- Yahoo! GeoCities web hosting service was launched. (Yahoo acc. 1999)
- QR Code(Matrix Barcode) was designed in Japan.
- W3C was founded.
- Netscape was founded, Cookies were introduced for Netscape Navigator. 🍪
- Shopping malls arrive on the Internet.
- Amazon was founded.
- CSS was proposed to the W3C.
- Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, and Nortel started working on USB. The goal was to make it fundamentally easier to connect external devices to PCs.
- Redhat was founded with REHL.
- Apple switched mac series from Motorola to PowerPC based processors.
- Mosaic was created by Marc Andreessen.
- DHCP rfc was published.
- DOOM was released.
- CIDR was introduced and Classful IP address was kind of deprecated.
- Slackware was created. Debian was also created around this time by Ian. The map.
- Infrared Data Association (IrDA) was founded.
- LDAP was developed.
- mp3 coding format was developed based on modifications to LPC.
- NetBSD and FreeBSD were put out independently.
- NSFNet was dissolved into the commercial Internet.
- Internet Society(ISOC) was founded to promote "Internet is for Everyone".
- Plan 9 was released.
- First ThinkPad was announced.
- Intel began working on PCI.
- Mbone was put on to test by Van Jacobson and Steve Deering.
- initial version of ANTLR(a parser generator) was released.
- .jpeg was specified.
- 🇨🇭 CCITT was renamed to Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). This org is pretty sick, it did the standardization of legends like JPEG(T.80), X.500, X.25, H.265 etc.
- RFC1335 discussed the idea of Private IP Address and NAT as solution to IP Exhaustion.
- Line Mode Browser was made available by Tim Lee and Nicola Pellow.
- arXiv was launched.
- Linux kernel was born.
- Solaris was released based on BSD, SysV and Xenix.
- Gopher protocol was released.
- Berlin Wall was demolished.
- The first commercial flash-based SSD was shipped by SunDisk/SanDisk
- PGP was created by Phil Zimmermann. When Zimmermann faced criminal charges about the distribution of PGP, he published the entire source code of PGP in a hardback book via MIT Press, which was distributed and sold widely because export of books was protected by the First Amendment.
- RADIUS was developed an access server authentication and accounting protocol.
Cold War Ended.
- BSD released Net/2 which removed all AT&T related code from BSD. Here a fork was made for Intel80386 called 386BSD; which was the basis of FreeBSD and NetBSD
- NIST proposed DSA(Digital Signature Algorithm) which was based on ElGamal signature scheme.
- Asynchronous transfer mode was really popular, some people said it would beat IP.
- Haskell was born.
- GNU Hurd development started.
- HTTP, HTML, WorldWideWeb(first browser) came to be.
- Bluetooth (prev. short-link-radio) was developed.
- EFF was founded. Wozniak was a founding member.
- SANS Institute was founded.
- GPLv1 was written my RMS.
- NFSv2 (Network File System) was released, RPC was the basis of it.
- Lamport talked about Paxos and it was taken as a joke, it was finally published again in 1998.
- GNU Bison was made compitable with YACC by RMS.
- Casio F-91W was introduced. (my watch ⏲)
- IANA(Now a function of ICANN) was founded.
- IRC was the created by Jarkko Oikarinen.
- tcpdump was written by Van Jacobson and friends, traceroute was also written by Van around this time.
- Mark Weiser coined the term ubiquitous computing/pervasive computing
- 🇺🇸 Morris worm entered the internet.
- The first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made.
- First POSIX standard document put out.
- Wolfram Mathematica was released.
- RAID was published as a paper by David Patterson and friends.
- Apple HyperCard was launched, it was among the first successful hypermedia systems predating the WWW.
- GCC was released by RMS from MIT.
- FLEX, an open source version of LEX was released.
- MINIX (a unix like academic os) based on microkernel was released by Tanenbaum.
- Unicode was born.
- IMAP came to be.
- IETF was officially founded.
- Chernobyl disaster happened.
- GDB was first written by RMS modeled after DBX from the original BSD.
- MX records were introduced to allow non-IP network hosts to have domain addresses.
- First 3D Printer was released.
- Joe Armstrong released Erlang.
- SPARC was released by Sun based on Berkeley RISC(led by David Patterson), another early RISC project was MIPS.
- Markus Hess hacked into the Pentagon and through the Tymnet(a network that used X.25), his activities were discovered by Clifford Stoll! at LBNL 👾 , the author of The Cuckoo's Egg.
- BOOTP was defined.
- NSFNet was launched after CSNET. (backbone speed of 56Kbps) it used the DEC LSI-11 based fuzzball router, Mills was involved. The Fuzzball router was one of te first routers to implement VLSM for addresses.
- FSF was founded.
- Desktop Publishing(DTP) took off with the addition of PostScript in Apple LaserWriter.
- Microsoft Windows was released.
- RMS published GNU Manifesto and mentioned the concept of Copyleft
- RFC968: 'Twas the Night Before Start-up'
- Symbolics.com the first domain was registered.
- mitre.org was the first .org domain name registered.
- Xilinx put out the first commercially available FPGA
- First NUMA based system was the XPS-100 by Dan Gielan. AMD added NUMA support in 2003 and Intel in 2007.
- Intel released the 80386 / i386, the first x86 microprocessor with a 32-bit instruction set and a memory management unit with paging.
- ElGamal encryption system(asymmetric key encryption algorithm) was defined by Taher Elgamal. It is based on the Diffie–Hellman key exchange.
- ElGamal signature scheme (a digital signature scheme) was also released during this time by Taher Elgamal.
- POP1 came to be.
- BIND(First Unix name server) was written by 4 UC Berkeley students, DNS was introduced. The
CLASSrecord in DNS can be
HS(for Hesiod from Project Athena) and
- X Window System idea was introduced.
- Apple Macintosh was released with "System 1"(MacOS) operating system(a GUI OS) with Motorola 68000.
- MATLAB was released.
- Cisco was founded.
- LaTeX was created by Leslie Lamport when working with TeX.
- RMS announced his intent to start coding the GNU Project in a Usenet message.
- FidoNet(BBS software) developed by Tom Jennings.
- Project Athena a joint project of MIT, Digital Equipment Corporation, and IBM to produce a campus-wide distributed computing environment for educational use was launched.
- SysV(Unix System V) was released.
- 4.2BSD was released with Berkeley sockets., the networking library was made opensource in 1989.
- CeePlusPlus was released.
- BBC started the Computer Literacy Project with Acorn Computers.
- Acorn Computers developed the the first ARM chip, currently "Arm Holdings" designs ARM processors. It was inspired by Berkeley RISC.
- SMTP came to be.
- 🇬🇧 First Online banking service was launched.
- Sun Microsystems was co-founded by Bill Joy.
- ARPANET switched from NCP to TCP/IP, IPv4 was live.
- ANSI developed the initial SCSI spec. Boucher intended to be pronounced "sexy", but Dal Allan pronounced the new acronym as "scuzzy" and that stuck.
- Commodore 64(8bit home computer) was launched. It has been listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time.
- EGP(an obsolete routing protocol) was specified. Mills was involved. Exterior gateway protocols are also a type of routing protocols, hence the confusion.
- Internet Protocol RFC791 was published.
- ICMP rfc was published, became part of the internet protocol suit.
- CSNET was launched.
- NTP (Network Time Protocol) was designed by David L. Mills.
- Osborne 1, first ever laptop was released.
- Flash Memory was invented based on EEPROM
- More and more implementation of RPC were starting to show up.
- X.25 one of the oldest packet-switching communication protocols was released. Early ATMs were using it. X.25 was used up to 2015 (e.g. by the credit card payment industry) and is still used by aviation, purchasable from telecoms companies. It was standardadized by ITU-T. It was later replaced by Frame Relay which eventually was replaced by TCP/IP
- On Holy Wars and a Plea For Peace was put out by Danny Cohen which introduced the terms LittleEndian and BigEndian
- UDP was designed by David P. Reed.
- IEEE802 a standard for networks carrying variable-size packets was introduced by IEEE, it mapped to layer 1 and 2 of the OSI model., infact it divided Layer2 into LLC and MAC sublayers.
- Usenet (a semi p2p distributed messaging system using newsgroups) with UUCP was idealized. Usenet was the mom who birthed terms such as "FAQ", "flame", sockpuppet, and "spam". You know Usenet was the main deal.
- Communicating sequential processes(CSP) was described by Tony Hoare.
- Introduction to VLSI systems book was published which kicked off the Mead & Conway revolution.
- TeX was developed by Donald Knuth.
- Time, Clocks, and the Ordering of Events in a Distributed System was published by Lamport.
- OSI Model was first defined.
- Mitre Corporation (a non-profit) was founded, it contributed to the ARPANET and the National Airspace System(NAS).
- Oracle was founded.
- First ACM ICPC
- DES(symmetric-key block cipher) as approved as a federal standard though the controversies by NIST, it was superseeded by AES
- Rivest after getting drunk, spent a night formalizing RSA(a asymmetric algorithm). (Hope this is true story!)
- Xerox Network Systems(XNS) was running, plausible competitor to IP was running. IEEE802 MAC addressing scheme comes from it.
- 🍎 Apple was founded, Apple I was on sale.
- 🇮🇳 NIC was founded.
- UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX.
- vi text editor was written by Bill Joy. and was added to 2BSD in 1979.
- Diffie–Hellman key exchange one of the first public-key protocols was published, but they left open the problem of realizing a one-way function, possibly because the difficulty of factoring was not well-studied at the time which was later resolved by RSA.
- Microsoft was founded.
- 1BSD was being worked on as an add-on to Version 6 Unix by Ken Thompson and Bill Joy.
- Lex(a lexer generator, proprietary) was released. It even became part of POSIX standard later.
- YACC(a parser generator, proprietary) was also released during this time and it became part of POSIX later.
- CSMA was put out based on previous work.
- BIOS first appeared in the CP/M operating system.
- Chaosnet was first developed by Thomas Knight and Jack Holloway at MIT's AI Lab.
- TCP/IP was birthed by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf; The initial docs contained the first attested use of the term Internet, as a shorthand for internetworking.
- Altair 8800(microcomputer) was designed based on the Intel8080, the differentiating factor with Kenbak-1 might have been the extensibility of the Altair. Gates and Allen started working on the interpreter. S-100 bus, the first industry standard expansion bus was designed for it aswell.
- Arecibo message was sent by Frank Drake and Carl Sagan.
- Foxconn was founded in China.
- 📱First mobile phone call made by Martin Cooper of Motorola.
- Reliance was started as a textile company. 🇮🇳
- First real-time two-way LPC packet speech communication was accomplished, the basis of VoIP, Danny Cohen was involved.
- Xerox came with the first computer with a mouse and gui: Xerox Alto.
- C Programming Language was birthed by Dennis Ritchie.
- Community Memory (CM) the first BBS was built.
- Ethernet idea was outlined by Robert(Bob) Metcalfe.
- Actor Model was defined by Hewitt.
- Alan Kay put out the idea of the Dynabook.
- Alan Kay released Smalltalk, the language that popularized the idea of OOP.
- First email was sent by Ray Tomlinson.
- First online transaction happened MIT/Stanford 🍀
- First commercially available Floppy Disk was released.
- Intel4004 - First commercially available microprocessor.
- The first handheld calculator was made with the designs of 4004 by Intel and Busicom. People now no longer need to use log tables to do huge multiplications!
- Creeper the first virus, met the internet.
- Project Gutenberg is started by Michael Hart with the purpose of making copyright-free works electronically available.
- Unix was born, witten in assembly with three parts assembler, editor, and shell.
- CYCLADES project was launched.
- Datapoint 2200 came out, which inspired the design of the Intel8080.
- Edgar F. Codd(IBM) proposed the relational model and relational algebra.
- B-tree datastructure was described.
- Xerox was founded.
- ALOHAnet, the first packet radio network was announced.
- ISBN was standardized by ISO
- B-trees was invented.
- ARPANET, the first wide-area packet-switching network came to be. It originally used NCP(Network Control Protocol).
- Ed text-editor was put out by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson at Bell Labs.
- TELNET was released.
- 🇮🇳🚀 ISRO was founded.
- 🌔 Commander Neil Armstrong and lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin landed on Moon.
- 🇺🇸 AMD was founded.
- 🇺🇸 Intel Corporation was co-founded by Robert Noyce.
- Software Crisis term was coined.
- EP-101, the first printer invented by Japanese company Epson.
- oN-Line System(NLS) was developed by Douglas Engelbart. It can be considered a precursor to the WWW.
- The Mother of All Demos by Douglas, He demonstrated almost all the fundamental elements of modern personal computing: windows, hypertext, graphics, efficient navigation and command input, video conferencing, the computer mouse, word processing, dynamic file linking, revision control, and a collaborative real-time editor (collaborative work).
- 🇮🇳 RAW was founded.
- Flynn's taxonomy were stated by Michael J. Flynn.
- linear predictive coding (LPC) introduced by Fumitada Itakura.
- 🇺🇸 Vietnam War
- Edsger Wybe Dijkstra introduced concurrency is when stating the mutual exclusion problem.
- Gordon Moore stated Moore's Law. 2x Transistor/Chip every 1.5 years.
- Quark Model was introduced to the world.
- IEEE was founded.
- IBM System/360 mainframe computer was announced, Fred Brooks coined computer architecture. Used design features from the Stretch.
- Dartmouth Time-Sharing System (DTSS) the first successful large-scale time-sharing system was built.
- BASIC was released, BASIC had a bigger social impact. It brought programming to households, kids especially. It was initially built for the DTSS.
- Sketchpad computer program was written by Ivan Sutherland on TX-2 with a LightPen. Computers were still mostly using punched cards or magnetic tape for batch job. This is considered as the birth of GUI.
- General Microelectronics(GMe) introduced the first commercial MOS integrated circuit, this paved the way for VLSI.
- Berlin Wall was built.
- CTSS, the first time sharing operating system was built, DTSS followed soon.
- Spacewar!, the first computer game was run on a DEC PDP-1.
- Paul Baran, Donald Davies, independently kind of put out the idea of packet-switching. Leonard Kleinrock establish a mathematical theory of packet networks using queuing theory
- IBM 7030 Stretch was launched which standardized on an 8-bit byte and power-of-two word length, before which byte referred to the group of bits encoding a character, even if it wasn't 8 bits.
- SI Unit System was born.
- ASCII was initially used.
- COBOL was released, shaped by the business/science split in computing.
- ALGOL was released, the committee wanted to make a good language for researching algorithms.
- 🇨🇺 Fidel Castro became PM of cuba.
- 🇮🇳 Television came to India.
- The MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) was invented.
- 🇺🇸 Robert Noyce invented the first monolithic IC chip.
- The term Machine Learning was coined.
- 🇺🇸🚀 NASA was founded.
- DARPA was founded.
- John McCarthy developed Lisp. It was the first language to have a garbage collector. It was the first to have a REPL. And it was the first to support dynamic typing.
- Donald Knuth coined the term coroutine.
- 🇷🇺 World's first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1 was launched by USSR.
- FORTRAN was written at IBM.
- DEC the minicomputer maker company was founded. They made PDP and VAX, later acc. by Compaq in 1998.
- First hard disk drive(HDD) shipped by IBM; in succession to tape drives.
- John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence
- 🇮🇳 TIFRAC(vacuum tube), the first computer developed in india.
- 🇺🇸 TX-0(transistor) computer was released, it and its decendents became platforms for pioneering computer research and the development of what would later be called computer "hacker" culture.
- Noam Chomsky described the Chomsky hierarchy
- HEC 2M was the first computer bought by Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata.
- Magnetic-core memory RAM was introduced, it was part of a family of related technologies which bridged the gap between vacuum tubes and semiconductors.
- CERN was founded. 🌠
- TRADIC, first transistorized computer was completed.
- ISI, Kolkata developed an Analog Computer, probably the first ever in India.
- Karnaugh map(K-map) was introduced to as a method of simplifying Boolean algebra expressions.
- 🇺🇸 NSA was founded
- IIT Kharagpur, first IIT was setup.
- Stephen Kleene described regular languages and regular expressions.
- Barcode was patented, it was base on Morse Code.
- First computer tape drive, Remington Rand was put out.
- Bertie the Brain was one of the first game playing machines developed.
- Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", starting point of modern cryptography.
- John von Neumann put down the first academic work on self replicating programs.
- The Shannon-Hartley Theorem was stated by Claude Shannon. If I need to go faster, I need more bandwidth.
- World Health Organization was founded.
- 🇬🇧 Manchester Baby world's first electronic stored-program computer to test Williams Tube
- 🇺🇸 First commercial PCB(Printed Circuit Board) was made.
- RFID idea was first written about, first actual demo was in 1973.
- 🇮🇳 India is finally Independent of British rule.
- Transistor was invented in Bell Labs.
Cold War Started.
- First practical form of random-access memory, Williams tube based on cathode-ray tubes was invented.
- 🇨🇭 ISO(International Organization for Standardization) was founded.
- ACM(Association for Computing Machinery) was founded.
- 🇺🇸 ENIAC(used vacuum tubes, turing complete) the first electronic general-purpose digital computer was built.
- 🇮🇳 Indian Standards Institution(ISI) was founded which was later rebranded into Bureau of Indian Standards in 1986
☮️ WW-II Ended., 50-80mn died. U.S.S.R. declares victory over Nazi Germany.
Little Boywere dropped.
- Korea divided into North Korea and South Korea.
- United Nations was formed.
- World Bank was formed.
- UNICEF was founded.
- 🇺🇸 The idea of the memex(a proxy for our human memories) was introduced by Vannevar Bush which influenced the WWW.
- 🇺🇸 John von Neumann introduced the von Neumann architecture in the first draft of EDVAC.
- IBM Harvard Mark I(electromechanical computer) was introduced. It stated the Harvard Architecture, John von Neumann ran one of the first program on it.
- 🇺🇸 Manhattan Project was started, Sir John was working on it aswell.
- Enrico Fermi let the team for the first artificial nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1.
- 🇩🇪 The first general-purpose non-electronic computer Z3 was actually built based on the design of the Analytical Engine, it was destroyed during WW-II
🔫 WW-II startedby Germany in an unprovoked attack on Poland.
- 🇺🇸 Molecular biology term was coined.
- Carl Adam Petri invented Petri Net at the age of 13.
- Shannon formalized the application of Boolean algebra to Electromagnetic Relays. Eventually, vacuum tubes replaced relays for logic operations.
- Alan Turing invented the Turing Machine. It suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction.
- NEC engineer Akira Nakashima's introduced switching circuit theory.
- Hitler was made chancellor of Germany.
- Neutron was discovered by James Chadwick.
- Idea of Neuclear Reactor came to Szilárd's mind.
- lambda calculus was invented by Alonzo Church.
- The Great Depression beginning in the United States.
- Ernest O. Lawrence built Cyclotron and founded the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL) commonly known as the Berkeley Lab.
- 🇺🇸 Television was invented
- 🔅 LED was invented.
- Erwin Schrödinger described the quantum mechanical model of the atom based off uncertainty principle
- 🇺🇸 AT&T Bell labs was founded.
- Heisenberg's put out his Uncertainty principle
- Stallin takes over the USSR.
- de Broglie discovers matter waves.
- Idea of Galaxy was introduced.
- Hitler joined/formed Nazi Party, inspired by Benito.
- 🇮🇹 Benito Mussolini became PM and formed National Fascist Party.
- 🇨🇳 Inspired by the Russian Revolution, The Communist Party of China is formed.
☮️ WW-I Ended., 17mn died, 20mn wounded.
- The first flip-flop was invented and consisted of two vacuum tubes. It is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.
- ANSI was founded.
- The Russian Revolution began, Vladimir Lenin(The Red Army) at the helm, the Bolsheviks, ascribing to Marxism, seize power during Russia’s October Revolution and become the first communist government.
- Chemical Bondings were explained.
- General Relativity was explained by Einstein.
🔫 WW-I started.because of assassination of the Archduke Franz.
- Isotopes were discovered.
- Bohr Model of an Atom was proposed by Bohr(student of Rutherford).
- Ramanujan wrote to G.H Hardy.
- Idea of continental drift was proposed by Alfred Wegener. (Pangea)
- IBM(International Business Machines) was founded.
- 🇬🇧 Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proton with the goldfoil experiment.
- Agner Krarup Erlang published first piece on Queueing theory.
- 🇬🇧 MI5 was founded.
- Special Relativity and Photoelectric effect were introduced by Einstein.
- 🇬🇧 International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC) was founded.
- 🛬 The Wright Brothers did their thing.
- 🇺🇸 Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was founded. From 1901–1988, the agency was named the National Bureau of Standards.(NBS)
- Max Plank laid foundation of Quantum Theory.
- Marie curie discover radium.
- 🇬🇧 Following up on Dalton, J.J Thompson discovered electron using the Cathod Ray tube experiment.
- Lorentz Force is defined.
- X-ray was discovered.
- Guglielmo Marconi developed the first practical radio transmitters
- Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Jagadish Chandra Bose.
- Stanford was founded.
- Hertz produced radio waves for the first time, giving bith to Electromagnetic radiation.
- 🚗 First Car
- Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter recorded sound on a glass disc using a beam of light.
- 🇺🇸 Thomas Edison was finally able to produce a reliable, long-lasting electric light 💡 in his laboratory.
- 🇺🇸 Telephone call by Alexander Graham Bell.
- 🇩🇪 Set Theory was introduced by Georg Cantor.
- 🇷🇺 Dimitri Mendeleev developed the Periodic Table.
- 🇺🇸 William Barton Rogers founded MIT
- Theory of Evolution was stated by Darwin.
- ETH Zurich was founded.
- Maxwell equations(differential eqns) somewhat came into existence influenced by Faraday's work, it also predicted the possibility of Radio Waves.
- Boolean Algebra was described by George Boole.
- Augusta Ada Lovelace transcribed the Analytical Engine and she is now termed as the first programmer ever. She met Babbage when she was 17. She was 23 when she did this.
- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto
- 🇩🇪 Kirchhoff's circuit laws were defined.
- First Morse code message with the telegraph was sent, "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT"
- Industrial revolution ends.
- 🇬🇧 Analytical Engine was designed by Charles Babbage. Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding.
- 🇺🇸 Morse developed an early forerunner to the modern International Morse code.
- Morse ft. Henry and Vail patented the electronic telegraph.
- Farady constructed Faraday cage.
- Henry invented the Electromechanical Relay.(EMR)
- 🇺🇸 Joseph Henry discovered electromagnetic induction independent of Faraday.
- 🇬🇧 Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction.
- 🇩🇪 Georg Ohm wrote about Ohm's Law, the galvanometer helped him.
- Camera was invented.
- William Sturgeon invented electromagnets.
- Berzelius discovers silicon (Si), It being a semiconductor is a critical element for fabricating most electronic circuits.
- Joseph Fourier laid the foundations of Fourier transform when exploring the Heat Eqn.
- 🇫🇷 André-Marie Ampère put together Ampère's law (a single mathematical form to represent the magnetic forces between current-carrying conductors), influenced by Ørsted's work.
- Followed by Ørsted's work, galvanometer was invented.
- 🇩🇰 Electromagnitism(i.e e-current produce magnetic fields) discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted
- 🚃 First steam locomotive railway known as Penydarren was built, it was possible because of the expiery of the patent on the Watt steam engine.
- 🇬🇧 John Dalton proposed the idea of the Atom.
- Wave theory of light was introduced with the double-slit experiment.
- 🇮🇹 Alessandro Volta invented the Voltaic pile. 🔋 (First electric battery)
- The first modern list of chemical elements – containing 33 elements was put together by A. Lavoisier.
- 🇫🇷 Coulomb's law was stated.
- Watt worked on the Watt steam engine, really gave some boost to the IR.
- 🇬🇧 Industrial revolution starts.
- 🇺🇸 Benjamin Franklin flew a kite in a stormy night and stored electricity in Leyden jar from lightning.
- The first ever capacitor, Leyden Jar was developed.
- Leonhard Euler published Seven Bridges of Königsberg.
- 🇬🇧 Statute of Anne/Copyright Act 1710 was enacted, which other countries later copied.
- Binary Number System was redefined by Leibniz
- Newton's law of universal gravitation was described.
- Speed of light was determined.
- 🇩🇪 Leibniz introduced the Integral sign ∫
- Differentail Equations were first mentioned Method of Fluxions by Newton.
- Phosphorus, it was the first element to be discovered since ancient times.
- Laws of Motion were introduced by 23y/o Issac Newton.
- 🇬🇧 Calculus was introduced by Issac Newton.
- Robert Hooke coined the term cell for describing biological organisms in his book Micrographia.
- Pascal's Law was stated.
- Harvard University was founded.
- Snell's law, law of reflection was described.
- John Napier introduced Logarithm as a means of simplifying calculations.
- William Gilbert discovered Earth's magnetic field.
- 🇮🇹 Gregorian calendar was introduced.
- Complex numbers were discovered by Gerolamo Cardano.
- 🇩🇪 Gutenberg invented the Printing press.
- Aryabhatta existed.
- Pāṇini formulated the grammar of Sanskrit in 3959 rules known as the Ashtadhyayi.
- Archimedes was alive and calculated the value of π.
- Euclid of Alexandria, the father of geometry was alive and kicking.
- Abacus was developed in Sumer(Iraq)